Ashurbanipal king of Assyria Ashurbanipal, also

6/9/2021, 2:15:37 PM
Ashurbanipal king of Assyria Ashurbanipal, also spelled Assurbanipal, orAsurbanipal, (flourished 7th century BC), last of the great kings of Assyria (reigned 668 to 627 BC), who assembled in Nineveh the first systematically organized library in the ancient Middle East. Ashurbanipal’s Reign. Ashurbanipal’s first concern was to quell a revolution in Egypt, where Taharqa (Tarku; biblical Tirhaka), an Egyptian king, had invaded the Nile Delta and won support. Swift Assyrian military action forced Taharqa’s withdrawal, and Ashurbanipal appointed local princes supported by Assyrian garrisons. Some of the princes intrigued with Taharqa, and the Assyrians deported them to Nineveh. Keeping to his plan to have native administrators, Ashurbanipal chose Necho I as supreme ruler of the delta and made a treaty with him. Further pressure from Taharqa’s successor, Tanutamon (Tandamane), led to another Assyrian intervention in 664–663, when the Assyrians seized control of Memphis and sacked Thebes. When Necho died in 663, Ashurbanipal held to his policy and accepted the succession of another local ruler, Psamtik (Psammetichus I); he was rewarded by a peace that enabled him to campaign elsewhere. In 654 BC the Assyrian garrisons were expelled from Egypt, but trade continued so that this loss resulted in little weakening of his position. He next turned to the Phoenician city of Tyre, which had supported both Egyptian and Lydian bids for independence. A successful siege of Tyre led to the resubmission of the rulers of Syria and Cilicia and to a request for Assyrian help from Gyges of Lydia against Cimmerian intruders. Because Lydian mercenaries had assisted Egypt, this help was refused. A swift display of military might against the Mannaeans and an alliance with Madyes, the Scythian chief, repulsed Cimmerian advances and left Ashurbanipal free to attend to Babylonia, his southern neighbour. Ashurbanipal had confirmed his half-brother Shamash-shum-ukin as local ruler of Babylonia, but with restricted powers. Assyrian garrisons and officials there continued to report to the Assyrian king, and he continued to appoint governors both in the Sealand (Persian Gulf) and in Ur. Babylon

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